How to sing Psalms using Anglican Chant

Throughout the Anglican Communion there is a tradition of singing the Psalms in services using Anglican Chant. This involves combining a 4-part harmony chant with the pointed words of a psalm.

Structure of a chant

The musical structure of a standard Anglican Chant in the format of: 3 bars / 4 bars / 3 bars / 4 bars. This is called a double chant, because it is used to sing 2 verses of the psalm. It’s also possible to see single chants that are half the length of a double chant in the format: 3 bars, 4 bars.

For each group of 3 or 4 bars, the first bar normally has a single note, the last bar has a single note, and the middle bars have two notes each – making up 20 notes in total for a double chant, or 10 notes for a single chant. More advanced chants have what’s called passing notes that add additional movement in each bar – see more on passing notes later.

Here’s an example of the format of a double chant:

Ignore the fact that the notes are all the same in this example

Structure of the psalm text

In order to fit the psalm text to the chant, the text is “pointed” (or notated) in a certain way, so that you know which text to sing with which notes:

Here’s an example of a pointed version of Psalm 23:

1 The | Lord is my | shepherd; * therefore | can I | lack | nothing.
2 He shall feed me in a | green | pasture, * and lead me forth be- | side the | waters of | comfort.

You’ll notice that the words are broken up with pipe “|” symbols (or sometimes alternatively the single quote ‘ symbol). These give an indication of when to change note when singing. Each pipe “|” corresponds to the bar lines in the chant, and so the text is pointed in the same 3 bar, 4 bar format.

Putting it together

The 3-bar section (delimited in the music with a double bar line) is used to sing the first half of the verse, and the 4-bar section is used to send the second half of the verse. A colon or semi-colon normally shows the middle of the verse.

  • A single chant is used to sing one verse of the psalm
  • A double chant is used to sing a pair of verses of the psalm

For each verse, the first and last bar of the 3-bar or 4-bar sections are treated differently to the one or two bars in the middle. All the words up until the first pipe “|” in a verse are sang to the note in the first bar. Similarly all the words after the last pipe “|” in a verse are sang to the note in the last bar.

For each of the middle bars, the set of words between the two pipes “|” are shared across the two notes in that bar. We need to look at the number of syllables in the bar to work out how to allocate them to the notes:

  • If there is only one syllable, we sing that syllable to both the notes – in our example, the word “lack” is in a bar of its own, and so we sing this word across two notes.
  • If there are two syllables, we sing each syllable to one note each – in our example, the bar with “can I” only has two syllables, so they get one note each.
  • If there are more than two syllables, we sing all the syllables except the last one to the first note, and the last syllable to the second note – in our example the bar with “Lord is my” has 3 syllables, so “Lord is” is sung to the first note, and “my” to the second note.

Sometimes a period “.” is used in the pointing of words to indicate an early change of notes in the middle of a multi-syllable bar. Without the period – in this example – the note changes between the words “is” and “my”:

1 The | Lord is my | shepherd; * therefore | can I | lack | nothing.

With a period – in this next example – the note changes between the words “Lord” and “is”:

1 The | Lord . is my | shepherd; * therefore | can I | lack | nothing.

Here’s how the words and music fit together for the first two verses of the psalm. I’ve inserted periods between each syllable to highlight them for you:

Click for bigger version


The note lengths don’t dictate the rhythm when singing Anglican Chant. The sense of rhythem comes from the cadence of the text, and should be at the usual pace used for reading out loud. To practice this, it’s often a good exercise to speak the text without the music.

Some singers are often tempted to slow down their pace of singing just before the bar line, because the note is changing, but this should be avoided if possible.

Passing notes

We talk about having passing notes, when there are more than one note in the first and last bars of each section, and more than two notes in the middle bars. Not all parts can get passing notes at the same time. Indeed, it can be common for just one of the four voices to have a passing note.

When we have passing notes, the syllable or syllables that would normally be sung to one note are instead shared over two notes – but in the same time as if you had been singing it to one note – so, quicker.

Additional pointing

Here’s some additional pointing of the words that you need to be aware of, which vary from place to place:

  • A space, comma or asterisk – used to mark a break in the singing of a line of words
  • Underlined or bold words – used to indicate words that need stressing or lengthening
  • A slur or arrow in the middle or end of the verse – used to indicate that you continue singing without a break
  • A long-dash “—” indicates to omit that bar of music from the chant
  • Dagger “†” indicates use of the second part of a double chant

Have a listen

Here’s a video of the Rivelin Singers singing Psalm 37. The person posting the video has kindly overlaid the pointed text so its easy to follow. You might also like to download the music for this version of Psalm 37 to sing along.

Which psalms are sung when

In some cathedrals and churches where the psalms are sung every day, the Psalter is divided equally in order over a month, with a few psalms appointed for morning prayer, and some appointed for evening prayer or evensong – with the idea that we start with Psalm 1 on the morning of the 1st of the month and get through all 150 over the course of the 31 days.

In other churches psalms are appointed for certain days based upon the Lectionary, which dictates all the biblical readings for a particular day, and in this case are not sung in numerical order.

Other things to note

When singing the psalms to Anglican Chant, here’s some things to note:

  • The music and words of the psalm aren’t printed together. Typically the chant is shown once at the top of the page, and all the verses of the psalm under it. So you need to get used to flicking back and forth between the music and words.
  • Different institutions use different editions of the Bible for the words of the psalms. The traditional words associated with the Book of Common Prayer are know as the Coverdale translation. Many churches use more modern English translations.
  • It’s possible to also have triple and quadruple chants that take 3 verses or 4 verses to sing through the whole chant.
  • Many choirs sing verses antiphonally. That is, they sing alternate verses. The first two verses of the psalm will be sung by the whole choir, and then the odd numbered verses by one side of the choir, and the even verses by the other. 

I love all beauteous things

I was reminded that it’s been 10 years since I was involved in the recording of an album of works by Herbert Howells while I was a member of the choir of Christ Church Cathedral Dublin.

The album, called I love all beauteous things, was recorded in February 2008. The choral pieces were recorded in the church of St Bart’s Ballsbridge rather than in Christ Church Cathedral itself – as the cathedral is situated right in the middle of the city, and there’s much too much traffic and other noise that would disturb a recording session.

I have very fond memories of doing the recording. I had only been in the choir for just less than a year myself, but had already made some really good friends – lifelong friends – that helped relieve the pressure of the hard work with a few laughs along the way.

The excitement in the room is evident!

Some of the organ music was pre-recorded in Christ Church using the cathedral organ, but they had to record in the middle of the night and hope that no ambulances went by at the wrong moment!

The choir recording took three days and finished on what would have been my 36th birthday.

Anyway, I was listening to the album for the first time in a very long time on Friday, and was blown away about the beauty of the music. I can’t even remember most of it, and wouldn’t have a hope’s chance of being able to sing the pieces today – but I’m very proud to have been involved in it.

If you fancy a listen, here’s the link on Spotify:

For a special bonus prize see if you can hear my tiny solo in one of the tracks!

Singing with the Tallis Scholars

I'm very excited about the opportunity to perform with the Tallis Scholars later this week.

I'm one of 30 singers recruited from around Dublin to join the choir in the performance of the 40-part piece Spem in Alium by Thomas Tallis.

I've only sung Spem in Alium once in the past, as part of a scratch performance put together for my 40th birthday. Because, what else would you do for a 40th birthday, but get together all of your singer friends and sing a 40-part anthem? It wasn't the most technically accurate performance in the world (I, for one, was making tons of mistakes), but it was a heck of a lot of fun – and if you fancy watching the video, stay for the amazing rendition of Happy Birthday at the end!

The prospect of singing such a piece with the Tallis Scholars, in contrast, is a pretty intimidating. They are one of the best professional choirs out there, and tour all over the world to sell out audiences. And I've volunteered to sing – one to a part – so there's no hiding at the back!

I'm sure it'll go very well. The rehearsal last week was sounding really good, and I came out of that really excited.

The concert takes place on Thursday, 5th October 2017 at 8.00pm in the National Concert Hall, Dublin. There are some tickets left – although not many – from the NCH website:

Foreign currency transfers

Changing money between different currencies can be expensive.

Traditional banks buy and sell foreign currencies from/to their customers at rates vastly different from the exchange rates you might see on the news. And while they may claim they don’t change fees, they do earn quite a bit of money by adding a mark-up to the exchange rate being offered.

There are, however, a number of disruptive financial companies emerging that can save you money. Companies like TransferWise, Revolut, and others.

For example:

  • a Bank of Ireland transfer of €1,000 to a UK bank will get you £887.80.
  • Using TransferWise to move the same €1,000 will get you £909.45. That’s a difference of £21.65 – or 2.5%!
  • Using Revolut to transfer the €1,000 will get you £914.00. That’s a difference of £26.20 – or 3%

And as the numbers get bigger, the difference will start to matter a lot more. Move €5,000 and the difference between Bank of Ireland and Revolut is £131, so it’s definitely worth shopping around.

And if you want some cash in a foreign currency, the one thing to remember is to never ever change money at the airport. That’s where you’ll get the very worst rates. The same €1,000 converted to pounds at ICE in Dublin airport would get you just £861.

The best thing is to wait until you arrive at your destination, and then use the Revolut card to withdraw cash from an ATM. The first €200 ATM withdrawal per month doesn’t incur any fees – after that there is a 2% fee – but it’s still better value.


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